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   2013| May-August  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 24, 2014

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Optical coherence tomography findings in high myopia
Amir Ramadan Gomaa, Mahmoud Alaa Abouhussein
May-August 2013, 1(2):13-17
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence and features of macular abnormalities in high myopic eyes detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients and Methods: This was a prospective observational study that involved 100 eyes of 100 patients with high myopia complaining of recent diminution of vision. OCT examination was done through dilated pupils, OCT examination was done through a dilated pupil using commercially available Cirrus HD-OCT Model 4000 - Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, California, USA or Spectralis OCT Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany. Results: A total of 100 eyes of 100 patients were studied. There were 45 males and 55 females. The mean age of the patients was 52.9 ± 12.9 (range: 33-70) years. Mean spherical equivalent in these eyes was 14.5 ± 5.8 (range: 8.75-22.75) diopters. Epiretinal membrane was present in 65 eyes. Vitreomacular traction (anteroposterior traction) was detected in 10 eyes. Macular retinoschisis was present in 33 eyes. Conclusion: Macular changes detected by OCT are common pathological findings in high myopia.
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Albuminuria as a biomarker for risk of retinopathy in type II diabetic patients in Suez Canal area
Walid Abdelghaffar, Waleed Ghobashy, Mohammed Abdo, Amani El-Baz, Magda Ibrahim
May-August 2013, 1(2):18-22
Aim: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of albuminuria in type II diabetes mellitus and report its influence, as a risk factor, for the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Subjects and Methods: During the period of January 2012 to May 2013, 420 type II diabetic patients were examined. Albuminuria adjusted for creatinine concentration was measured. Body mass index and hemoglobin A1c were also measured. Patients were evaluated by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and were classified as non-retinopathy, non-proliferative, proliferative or diabetic maculopathy. Results: The prevalence of albuminuria among type II diabetic patients in this study was 40.2%. The prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were 30.7% and 9.5% respectively. The study also showed an association between the degree of albuminuria and severity of retinopathy. Nearly 97.5% of the macroalbuminuric patients had sight threatening forms of retinopathy (proliferative diabetic retinopathy + diabetic maculopathy DM) compared with 87%of the microalbuminuric and only 15% of the normoalbuninuric patients. Conclusion: Micro- or macroalbuminuria are highly prevalent in subjects with type II diabetes. Subjects with micro- and macroalbuminuria are more likely to have DR compared with those without albuminuria.
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Silicone oil induced high astigmatism in a pseudophakic vitrectomized eye
Mostafa Hamed Nabih, Ahmed Abd Allah Mohalhal
May-August 2013, 1(2):28-30
A 66-year-old male lawyer with dropped whole nucleus during phacoemulsification procedure. He was hepatitis C virus positive, international normalized ratio 1.5, prothrombin concentration 60%, and coagulation time 15.5 s. Positive predictive value was done, nucleus was removed with sleeveless phaco needle through pars plana, an AcrySof three piece intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in the ciliary sulcus. Postoperative sustained vitreous haze required silicone oil injection. One day postoperatively, vision was counting fingers again, opened posterior capsule, clear fundus details. Refraction revealed: −8 × 120 astigmatic error correcting the patient to 0.2 vision (decimal fraction) with uniocular diplopia; as the patient claimed. Corneal topography revealed minimal corneal astigmatic error. By revising patient's clinical data, the IOL was perfectly in the sulcus supported by a remarkably thick anterior capsule. The capsulorhexis opening has changed into an oval one with a long axis almost the same as that of negative cylinder, 2 months later silicone oil was removed. The unaided vision of this eye returned to 0.9 to be corrected to 1.0 with +0.75 cylinder at 20.
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Optical coherence tomography evaluation of retinal and optic nerve head neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Mahmoud Alaa Aboeuhussein
May-August 2013, 1(2):23-27
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the in vivo spatial and morphological vitreoretinal relationships associated with diabetic retinal neovascularization (NV) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patient and Methods: This was a prospective observational study that involved 50 eyes of 46 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) documented by fluorescein angiography either treatment naοve or laser treated were included. Qualitative assessment of macula, retina and optic disc head OCT imaging of patients with PDR. The morphology and plane of retinal neovascularization at the disc (NVD) and elsewhere in the retina (NVE) was examined, and the posterior vitreous relationships were evaluated. Results: The mean age of patients was 52.1 years. Ten patients had type 1 diabetes and 36 had type 2 diabetes. It was possible to evaluate changes of retina, vessels and vitreous in the 50 eyes. This study describes OCT characteristics of: NVD in 35 eyes (70%), NVEs in 20 eyes (40%), NV causing traction without retinal detachment in 15 eyes (30%), and NV causing traction with retinal detachment in 10 eyes (20%). Conclusion: It is possible to image NV of proliferative retinopathy using spectral domain OCT and to visualize the retinal, vascular and vitreous changes associated with NV.
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